R.E. Millward & Associates was retained by J.C. Williams Group to examine City of Toronto Official Plan policies, zoning by-law regulations, and other planning legislation associated with the issue of retail stores and how they can be regulated through the planning process. J.C. Williams Group, a retail marketing advisory firm, was retained by the City of Toronto to develop a strategy for vitality and viability of Main Street Retail. The Retail Planning Tools report was used to inform their work. The report outlines the historical planning issue of controlling retail uses (type and scale), and examined how Toronto’s current planning policies and regulations were in addressing concerns about retail uses on Main Streets. A key analysis in the report was how effective the zoning by-law could be in addressing fundamental planning issues associated with the use. The report also discussed other planning tools to consider beyond traditional regulations and provided a brief review of retail planning literature showing examples from the United States, Australia, and Ireland.